Malaria surveys

Numerous surveys have been conducted in Zambia that measure progress in increasing the coverage of malaria interventions as part of the Ministry of Health's planned activities and through the work of many RBM partners. Among household surveys, the 2010 National Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) and the Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 2007 are the most recent measurements of malaria intervention coverage (see below for more information on the 2010 MIS). Previous surveys include the 2008 MIS, the 2006 MIS, the RBM baseline and follow-up surveys in 10 sentinel districts, Society for Family Health periodic evaluations, the 2001-02 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), the UNICEF-sponsored Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey and several other smaller-scale surveys. See the Table 1 below for a summary of key findings from these surveys. Requests for comprehensive MIS data sets can be made directly through the Ministry of Health by clicking here.

A number of facility-based surveys have been conducted in Zambia in recent years. In 2006, the Ministry of Health conducted a national health facility census, and in December 2005, the Health Services and Systems Project (HSSP) conducted a large-scale baseline facility survey assessing many key malaria service delivery issues, including IPT and provider practices for antimalarial treatment. The RBM baseline and follow up surveys present the most comprehensive facility assessments for malaria. Another published study provides insight into providers' prescribing behaviour for antimalaria treatment.

Zambia's Malaria Indicator Survey 2010

Zambia continues to make dramatic progress in its fight to control malaria, as evidenced by results from the country’s 2010 MIS. In Zambia, the number of young children sleeping under nets increased to 50 percent—one of the highest bednet usage rates in the continent.  And over 70 percent of Zambian households are now covered by at least one treated mosquito net or recent indoor spraying—a 69 percent increase since the 2006 survey. Meanwhile, use of rapid diagnostic tests to confirm cases of suspected malaria has expanded across the country, so that those infected with the disease are treated quickly, correctly and effectively.

In addition, the percentage of children receiving Coartem®—the most effective treatment for malaria currently on the market—has increased from 30 percent in 2008 to 76 percent in 2010. (See table below.) Since 2002, malaria infection and illness in this same age group have decreased substantially, and the all-cause mortality rate for children under age five years has dropped by 29%—meaning an estimated 75,000 lives have been saved.

2010 Zambia Malaria Indicator Survey Report
2010 MIS Technical Brief
2010 MIS Fact Sheet

Table 1. Benchmarking change in Zambia

Indicator

DHS 2001/ 2002

MIS 2006

DHS 2007

MIS 2008

MIS 2010

Percentage of households with at least one insecticide-treated net (ITN)

14

38

53

62

64

Percentage of households with at least one ITN per sleeping space

N/A

N/A

N/A

33

34

Percentage of households receiving indoor residual spraying (IRS) in the previous 12 months among all households in Zambia

N/A

10

N/A

15

23

Percentage of households covered by at least one ITN or recent IRS

N/A

43

N/A

68

73

Percentage of children ages 0–59 months who slept under an ITN the previous night

7

24

29

41

50

Percentage of pregnant women (PW) who slept under an ITN the previous night

8

25

33

43

46

Percentage of household members who slept under an ITN the previous night

N/A

19

N/A

34

42

Percentage of PW who took any preventive antimalarial drug during pregnancy

36

85

87

88

89

Percentage of PW who received two doses of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy

N/A

59

66

66

70

Percentage of children ages 0–59 months with severe anaemia (Hb<8 g/dl)

N/A

14

N/A

4

9

Percentage of children ages 0–59 months with malaria parasitaemia

N/A

22

N/A

10

16

Percentage of women ages 15–49 years who recognize fever as a symptom of malaria

N/A

65

N/A

71

75

Percentage of women ages 15–49 years who reported mosquito bites as a cause of malaria

N/A

80

N/A

85

85

Percentage of women ages 15–49 years who reported mosquito nets as a prevention method

N/A

78

N/A

81

82